Archive for the 'General' Category

Dirty COW (CVE-2016-5195) is a privilege escalation vulnerability in the Linux Kernel.

A race condition was found in the way the Linux kernel’s memory subsystem handled the copy-on-write (COW) breakage of private read-only memory mappings.


  • An unprivileged local user could use this flaw to gain write access to otherwise read-only memory mappings and thus increase their privileges on the system and gain root access instantly.
  • This flaw allows an attacker with a local system account to modify on-disk binaries, bypassing the standard permission mechanisms that would prevent modification without an appropriate permission set.

It’s highly recommended to patch the system kernel in all Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS and RHEL distros to prevent system breakage.

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Wordpress Login LockDown

Wordpress Login LockDown

Limits the number of login attempts from a given IP range within a certain time period.


Login LockDown records the IP address and timestamp of every failed login attempt. If more than a certain number of attempts are detected within a short period of time from the same IP range, then the login function is disabled for all requests from that range. This helps to prevent brute force password discovery. Currently the plugin defaults to a 1 hour lock out of an IP block after 3 failed login attempts within 5 minutes. This can be modified via the Options panel. Admisitrators can release locked out IP ranges manually from the panel.


1. Extract the zip file into your plugins directory into its own folder.
2. Activate the plugin in the Plugin options.
3. Customize the settings from the Options panel, if desired.



Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks

Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks

Attacker or group of attackers coordinate against an organization’s network or server resources by sending unauthorized packets to the target host (either server, router, or workstation). This forces the resource to become unavailable to legitimate users.

The most reported DoS case in the US occurred in 2000. Several highly-trafficked commercial and government sites were rendered unavailable by a coordinated ping flood attack using several compromised systems with high bandwidth connections acting as zombies, or redirected broadcast nodes.

Source packets are usually forged (as well as rebroadcasted), making investigation as to the true source of the attack difficult.

Advances in ingress filtering (IETF rfc2267) using iptables and Network Intrusion Detection Systems such as snort assist administrators in tracking down and preventing distributed DoS attacks.


SELinux in Ubuntu

SELinux in Ubuntu

SELinux is a Mandatory Access Control (MAC) system which is a kernel (LSM) enhancement to confine programs to a limited set of resources. SELinux can be enabled in Ubuntu by installing the “selinux” meta-package, which will make the needed changes to the system, and install the Tresys policies for Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install selinux

After installation, you will be prompted to reboot the system to label and activate SELinux.
When using SELinux, files, including directories and devices, are referred to as objects. Processes, such as a user running a command or the Mozilla® Firefox® application, are referred to as subjects.

The following is an example of the labels containing security-relevant information that are used on processes, Linux users, and files, on Linux operating systems that run SELinux. This information is called the SELinux context, and is viewed using the ls -Z command:

$ ls -Z file1
-rw-rw-r–. user1 group1 unconfined_u:object_r:user_home_t:s0 file1

In this example, SELinux provides a user (unconfined_u), a role (object_r), a type (user_home_t), and a level (s0). This information is used to make access control decisions. With DAC, access is controlled based only on Linux user and group IDs. It is important to remember that SELinux policy rules are checked after DAC rules. SELinux policy rules are not used if DAC rules deny access first.

What is Reverse Domain Name Hijacking?

Reverse domain name hijacking has become a significant security threat that is largely overlooked by the web hosting community. This form of domain theft involves copyright owners asserting expansive trademark rights in order to take ownership of a domain from its rightful owner. In most cases, this form of domain theft is actually practiced by larger companies that want to claim a domain name from a smaller company.

In the case of ‘reverse domain name hijacking’ the offending party will typically file a report in conjunction with the UDRP (Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy), which claims that the current domain owner registered the domain in violation of trademark rights. The goal in filing this report is to have the current domain ownership rights revoked and handed over to the offender. Unfortunately, even though in many cases the larger companies are overstepping their trademark rights, most small companies do not have the funds or knowledge needed to defend themselves through any type of opposition. it is possible to file an action in court against the offending party, which states that your registration of the domain was lawful and in accordance with the Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA). The ACPA is basically a law that serves to protect domain registrants from the outreaching and unjust claims of trademark owners.

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